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Title:Parikh Images of Regular Languages: Complexity and Applications
Authors: Anthony Lin
Date:Feb 2010
Publication Type:Conference Paper Publication Status:Submitted
We show that the Parikh image of the language of an NFA with n states over an alphabet of size k can be described as a finite union of linear sets with at most k generators and total size 2^{O(k^2 log n)}, i.e., polynomial for all fixed k >= 1. Previously, it was not known whether the number of generators could be made independent of n, and best upper bounds on the total size were exponential in n. Furthermore, we give an algorithm for performing such a translation in time 2^{O(k^2 log(kn))}. Our proof exploits a previously unknown connection to the theory of convex sets, and establishes a normal form theorem for semilinear sets, which is of independent interests. To complement these results, we show that our upper bounds are tight and that the results cannot be extended to context-free languages. We give four applications: (1) a new polynomial fragment of integer programming, (2) precise complexity of membership for Parikh images of NFAs, (3) an answer to an open question about polynomial PAC-learnability of semilinear sets, and (4) an optimal algorithm for LTL model checking over discrete-timed reversal-bounded counter systems.
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Bibtex format
author = { Anthony Lin },
title = {Parikh Images of Regular Languages: Complexity and Applications},
book title = {},
year = 2010,
month = {Feb},
url = {},

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