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Title:Micro-Planning based on Communicative Intent: The SPUD System
Authors: Matthew Stone ; Christine Doran ; Tonya Bleam ; Martha Palmer ; Bonnie Webber
Date:Nov 2003
Publication Title:Computational Intelligence
Publication Type:Journal Article Publication Status:Published
Volume No:19 Page Nos:311-381
The process of microplanning in natural language generation (NLG) encompasses a range of problems in which a generator must bridge underlying domain-specific representations and general linguistic representations. These problems include constructing linguistic referring expressions to identify domain objects, selecting lexical items to express domain concepts, and using complex linguistic constructions to concisely convey related domain facts. In this paper, we argue that such problems are best solved through a uniform, comprehensive, declarative process. In our approach, the generator directly explores a search space for utterances described by a linguistic grammar. At each stage of search, the generator uses a model of interpretation, which characterizes the potential links between the utterance and the domain and context, to assess its progress in conveying domain-specific representations. We further address the challenges for implementation and knowledge representation in this approach. We show how to implement this approach effectively by using the lexicalized tree-adjoining grammar (LTAG) formalism to connect structure to meaning and using modal logic programming to connect meaning to context. We articulate a detailed methodology for designing grammatical and conceptual resources which the generator can use to achieve desired microplanning behavior in a specified domain.
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Bibtex format
author = { Matthew Stone and Christine Doran and Tonya Bleam and Martha Palmer and Bonnie Webber },
title = {Micro-Planning based on Communicative Intent: The SPUD System},
journal = {Computational Intelligence},
publisher = {Blackwell},
year = 2003,
month = {Nov},
volume = {19},
pages = {311-381},
doi = {10.1046/j.0824-7935.2003.00221.x},
url = {},

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