This course is majorly overhauled this year.

There has a recent surge of computational architectures inspired by how the brain works, and
unlike previously, they actually perform well on certain tasks.
After describing rigorous ways to describe neural activity mathematically,
we present a number of the architectures recently used to do tasks like object recognition, memories, bayesian reasoning, and planning.

The background needed to successfully take this course is a good grounding in mathematics, particularly with regard to probability and statistics, vectors and matrices. The mathematical level required is similar to that which would be obtained by students who did not have significant difficulties with the courses Mathematics for Informatics 1-4 taken in the first two years of the Informatics undergraduate syllabus. The Neural Computation (NC) course is a helpful but not necessary prerequisite. Biological realism is not as important an objective as in that course. Machine learning courses (LfD, PMR, IAML) will be also useful preparations.

Instructors:
Mark van Rossum.

Course Tutor: TBA

- Review of probabilistic modelling and information theory.
- Overview of relevant neurobiology
- Neural encoding
- Neural decoding
- Mathematics of Hebbian learning
- Models of early visual coding (sparse coding, ICA and beyond)
- Lateral Interactions and Feedback
- Object recognition

There will be two assessed assignments worth in total 25%. There will be an exam worth 75%.

First assignment . Deadline XXX.

Second assignment,
deadline XXX .

Natural Image Statistics by Aapo Hyvärinen, Jarmo Hurri, and Patrik O. Hoyer. Full version online. This will be supplemented by papers from the literature.

Neural encoding: lecture slides (2x2) , lecture slides (single page)

Higher Order Statistics slides (single page), slides (4up),

Emergence of Simple-Cell Receptive Field Properties by Learning a Sparse Code for Natural Images, Olshausen BA, Field DJ Nature, 381: 607-609 (1996)

Sparse Coding with an Overcomplete Basis Set: A Strategy Employed by V1? Olshausen BA, Field DJ, Vision Research, 37: 3311-3325 (1997).

The "independent components" of natural scenes are edge filters. Anthony J. Bell and Terrence J. Sejnowski, Vision Research 37(23): 3327-3338 (1997). preprint, official paper also available electronically via UoE library (Science Direct)

A hierarchical Bayesian model for learning non-linear statistical regularities in non-stationary natural signals, Y. Karklin and M. S. Lewicki, Neural Computation, 17 (2): 397-423, (2005)

Learning higher-order structures in natural images, Y. Karklin and M. S. Lewicki, Network: Computation in Neural Systems, 14: 483-499, (2003)

Topographic Independent Component Analysis, A. Hyvarinen, P.O. Hoyer and M. Inki, Neural Computation, 13(7):1527-1558, (2001)

Emergence of phase and shift invariant features by decomposition of natural images into independent feature subspaces A. Hyvarinen and P.O. Hoyer, Neural Computation, 12(7):1705-1720, (2000)

Undirected Graphical Models lecture slides (single page), lecture slides (4up).

Natural Images, Gaussian Mixtures and Dead Leaves, Daniel Zoran and Yair Weiss, NIPS 2012.

Sparse deep belief net model for visual area V2. Honglak Lee, Ekanadham Chaitanya, and Andrew Y. Ng. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 20 (2008).

Topographic Product Models Applied To Natural Scene Statistics Osindero, S., Welling, M. and Hinton, G. E. Neural Computation, 18(2) (2006).

Natural Image Coding in V1: How Much Use is Orientation Selectivity? Eichhorn J, Sinz FH and Bethge M, PLoS Computational Biology 5(4:e1000336) 1-16 (2009)

Predictive Coding in the Visual Cortex. Rao, R. P. N. and Ballard, D. H., Nature Neuroscience, 2(1), 79-87, (1999)

Hierarchical Bayesian inference in the visual cortex. Lee, T.S., Mumford, D., Journal of Optical Society of America, A. . 20(7): 1434-1448 (2003)

Robust Object Recognition with Cortex-Like Mechanisms Serre, T., L. Wolf, S. Bilschi, M. Riesenhuber and T. Poggio. IEEE PAMI 29(3) 411-426 (2007)

How Close Are We to Understanding V1? Olshausen BA, Field DJ, Neural Computation, 17, 1665-1699 (2005).

20 years of learning about vision: Questions answered, questions unanswered, and questions not yet asked. Olshausen BA. In: 20 Years of Computational Neuroscience, Springer (2010)

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