- Zipf's Law
- Ambiguity (Lexical, Syntactic, Semantic, Discourse-functional)
- Open-class Words, Closed-class Words
- Part-of-Speech and PoS-tagging
- Chomsky Hierarchy
- Sparse Data

- Tokenization
- Morphology: Stems, Affixes, Root, Lemma
- Inflectional Morphology
- Derivational Morphology
- Lexical compound
- Finite State Machine
- Regular Language and Regular Expression
- N-Gram Language Model
- Markov Model
- Hidden Markov Model
- Add-One / Add-Alpha Smoothing
- Good-Turing Smoothing (not required: derivation of Good Turing Smoothing)
- Witten-Bell Smoothing
- Kneser-Ney Smoothing
- Backoff
- Interpolation
- Interpolated Back-Off
- Trie Structure for Backoff Language Models
- Bayes Rule
- Spelling Correction
- Features in Machine Learning
- Feature Selection

- Automatic Learning of Morphology
- Expectation-Maximization Algorithm (EM)
- Maximum Entropy Models - Improved Iterative Scaling
- N-Best List Reranking
- Perceptron Algorithm

- Maximum Likelihood Estimation
- Viterbi Algorithm for Hidden Markov Models
- Finding minimum string edit distance

- Context-Free Grammar
- Bounded and unbounded dependencies
- Nested vs. crossing dependencies
- Mildly Context-sensitive Grammar
- Phrase-structure grammar vs. Lexicalized grammar
- Tree Adjoining Grammar
- Combinatory Categorial Grammar
- Supertags/supertagging and their relation to PoS-tags/PoS-tagging
- Dependency grammar
- Dependency structures: Projective vs. Non-projective
- Dependency parsing: Maximal spanning trees
- Search space: What is one searching for in parsing and what is one searching through?
- Breadth-first search, depth-first search, and differences between them
- Parsing as dynamic programming: What problems is one solving and how does this differ from breadth-first and depth-first search?
- Prediction in parsing (as in Earley parser with Dotted Rules)
- Difference between recognition and parsing
- Push-Down Automaton
- Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar
- Head Words (in Syntax)
- Competence vs Performance
- PARSEVAL: precision, recall
- Complexity of CKY Parsing
- Coarse-to-Fine Parsing
- Outside Cost Estimation
- Oracle Performance

- Top-Down parsing
- Bottom-Up parsing
- Chart Parsing

- CKY Parsing
- Earley Parsing

- Reference
- Coreference
- Anaphora
- Constraints on anaphor binding
- Preferences in anaphor resolution
- Coherence
- Coherence relations
- Discourse connectives

- Centering

- Hobbs algorithm
- Lappin and Leass algorithm

- Meaning representations (MR)
- Canonical Form
- First Order Logic as a MR
- Compositionality
- Expressivity
- Lambda expression
- Word Senses
- Relations between word senses
- WordNet
- Thematic Roles
- Selectional Restrictions
- Question Answering
- Similarity Metric

- Constraint satisfaction for Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD)
- Supervised Learning for WSD (Naive Bayes Classifier, Decision List Classifier)
- Semi-supervised methods for WSD (Bootstrapping)
- Unsupervised methods for WSD (Agglomerative Clustering)
- Cosine Metric
- Syntax Driven Semantic Analysis

- Lambda reduction
- Compositional Semantics: parsing with semantic attachments